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Web Applications and Security
A web application (web app) is an application program that is stored on a remote server and delivered over the Internet through a browser interface.
Common web applications include web mail, online retail sales and online auction, etc.
Security is fundamentally about protecting assets (data, hardware, reputation, etc.). Therefore, you should
Identify potential threats Know how to react to an attack
Detect and fix vulnerabilities
Working with Accessibility Options
Accessibility features are designed to help people with disabilities so that they use technology more easily. For example, a text-to-speech feature may read text out loud for people with limited vision, while a speech-recognition feature allows users with limited mobility to control the computer with their voice.
Launching Accessibility Options To launch accessibility options, follow the given steps.
Step 1 Click on Start button → Control Panel. Control Panel window will appear on your screen with various categories.
Step 2 Click on Ease of Access category. After this, Ease of Access window will appear.
Step 3 In the Ease of Access Center, click on Let Windows suggest settings.
Step 4 A window will provide in which you can change settings of keyboard, mouse etc.
Step 5 You can choose any options under Select all statements that apply to you.
Step 6 Click on Ease of Access Center. A window will appear.
Step 7 In this window, four options are given as – Start Magnifier a display utility that makes the computer screen more readable by creating a separate window that displays a magnified portion of the screen.
- Start Narrator a text-to-speech utility that reads what is displayed on the screen-the contents of the active window.
- Start On-Screen Keyboard displays a virtual keyboard on the computer screen that allows people to type data by using a pointing device. – Set up High Contrast a window showing settings for color and contrast of display.
Explore All Settings Instead of looking for accessibility settings in various places on your computer, Windows bring all those settings together and organises them into categories that you can explore in Ease of Access Center. Some of them are (i) Make the Computer Easier to See
If you occasionally have trouble seeing items on your screen, you can adjust the settings to make text and images on the screen appear larger, improve the contrast between items on the screen.
You can adjust many of these settings on the Make the computer easier to see page in the Ease of Access Center. Open the Ease of Access Center, then select the options that you want to use.
Choose High Contrast This allows you to set a high contrast color scheme that heightens the color contrast of some text and images on your computer screen..
- Remove Background Images This turns off all unimportant, overlapped content and backgroup images to help make the screen easier to use.
(ii) Make the Mouse Easier to Use
You can change how the mouse pointer looks and turn on other features that can help make it easier to use your mouse. You can adjust these settings on the Make the mouse easier to use page in the Ease of Access Center.
- Change the Color and Size of Mouse Pointer You can use these options to make the mouse pointer larger or change the color to make it easier to see. . Turn on Mouse Keys You can use this option to control the movement of the mouse pointer by using the numeric keypad.
(iii) Make the Keyboard Easier to Use
You can use your keyboard to control the mouse and make it easier to type certain key combinations. You can adjust these settings on the Make the keyboard easier to use page in the Ease of Access Center.
- Turn on Sticky Keys This option sets Sticky Keys to run when you log on to windows. Instead of having to press three keys at once (Ctrl, Alt, Delete), you can use one key by turning on Sticky Keys and adjust settings.
- Turn on Toggle Keys This option sets Toggle Keys to run when you log on to windows. These keys can play an alert each time you press the Caps Lock, Num Lock or Scroll Lock Keys.
(iv) Use Text or Visual Alternatives to Sounds Windows provide settings for using visual cues to replace sounds in many programs.
You can adjust these settings on the use text or visual alternatives for sounds page in the Ease of Access Center.
▪️ Turn on Visual Notifications for Sounds This option sets sound notifications to run when you log on the Windows. You can also choose how you want sound notifications to warn you.
▪️ Turn on Text Captions for Spoken Dialog This option causes windows to display text captions in place of sounds to indicate that activity is happening on your ter.
A network can be defined as an interconnected collection of autonomous computers. A computer network or simply a ‘network is a collection of computers and other hardware devices, interconnected by communication channels (satellites or cables) that allow sharing of resources and information. A computer networking is the practice for exchanging informations/services between two or more computer devices together for the purpose of sharing data. The speed of a network is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second).
Benefits of Networking
Computer network is very useful in modern environment, so some of the benefits of networking are discussed here :
- File Sharing Networking of computers helps the users to share data files.
- Hardware Sharing Users can share devices such as printers, scanners, CD-ROM drives, hard drives, etc.
Application Sharing Applications can be shared over the network and this allows to implement client/server applications. User Communication This allows users to communicate using E-mail, newsgroups, video conferencing within the network.
- Access to Remote Database By networking, we are able to access to the remote database. It is easy for any person using his PC to make reservations for aeroplanes, trains, hotels, etc., anywhere in the world with instant confirmation within the network.
Types of Network
A network refers to a group of interconnected computers which are capable of sharing information and communication devices. On the basis of coverage or geographical spread, a network can be divided into following types:
LAN (Local Area Network)
When a group of computers and its devices are connected in a small area, then this network is said to be a LAN. Computers or users in a local area network can share data, information, software and common hardware devices such as printer, modem, hard disk, etc. A LAN typically relies mostly on wired connections for increased speed and security but wireless connection also be a part of LAN. LAN are used within office building, school, etc.
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) This is basically bigger version of LAN and normally uses similar technology. It might cover few buildings in a city and might either be private or public. e.g. In a city, a MAN, which can support both data and voice might even be related to local cable television network.
WAN (Wide Area Network)
The network which connects the different countries network is known as WAN. It can be a group of LANS. The largest existing WAN is Internet. For example, a network of ATMs, BANKS, National Government Offices spread over a country or continents are examples of WANS.
Comparison between LAN, MAN and WAN
PAN (Personal Area Network)
PAN refers to a small network of communication. The range of a PAN is generally 10 metre. PAN may be wired using USB cables or wireless using wireless network technologies such as bluetooth, wireless USB, 2-wave and ZigBee. Bluetooth personal area network is also called a piconet. It can be composed of upto eight devices in a master-slave relationship.
Network devices are the components used to connect computer and other electronic devices together, so that they can share files or resources like printers or fax machines. The most common type of network devices used by the public to set-up a Local Area Network (LAN) are hub, switch, repeater and if online access is desired, a high-speed modem is required.
Some of them are described below
A hub is a device, which is used with computer systems to connect several computers together. It acts as a centralised connection to several computers with the central node or server. It is a multi-port device, which provides access to computers.
A switch is a hardware device, which is used to connect devices or segment of network with smaller subsets of LAN segments. The main purpose of segmenting is to prevent the traffic overloading in a network.
Repeater is a hardware device, used to amplify the feeble signals, when they are transported over a long distance. When the signal is transmitted over a line, then due to resistance and other causes it accumulates noise. Due to this noise, the quality of signal degrades. The basic function of a repeater is to amplify the incoming signal and retransmit it to the other device.
A gateway is a device which is used to connect dissimilar networks. The gateway establishes an intelligent connection between a local network and external networks, which are completely different in structure. Infact, the gateway is a node that routes the traffic from a workstation to outside network.
The gateway also acts as a proxy server and a firewall, which prevents the unauthorised access.
Bridge serves a similar function as switches. A bridge filters data traffic at a network boundary. Bridge reduces the amount of traffic on a LAN by dividing it into two segments. Traditional bridge supports one network boundary, whereas switches usually offer four or more hardware ports. Switches are sometimes called multi-part bridges.
A hardware device designed to take incoming packets, analyse the packets, move the packets to another network, convert the packets to another network interface, drop the packets, direct packets to the appropriate locations, etc. A router functions similar to a bridge. However, unlike a bridge, a router passes data packets from one network to another network based on their IP addresses not MAC addresses.
Modem (Modulator/Demodulator) Modem is a device that converts digital signal to analog signal (modulator) at the sender’s site and converts back analog signal to digital signal (demodulator) at the receiver’s end, in order to make communication possible via telephone lines.
NIC (Network Interface Card)
NIC provides the physical connection between the network and the computer workstation. With most LAN’s cables, NIC is used for their connectivity.
The network topology refers to the arrangement or pattern of computers, which are interconnected in a network. Commonly used network topologies are as follows
It is a type of network in which the computers and the peripheral devices are connected to a common single length data line.
All the computers or devices are directly connected to the data line. The data is transmitted in small blocks, known as packets.
Ring or Circular Topology
In this type of topology, each node is connected to two and only two neighbouring nodes. The data travels in one direction only from one node to another node around the ring. After passing through each node, the data returns to the sending node.
In this topology, there persists a central node called server or hub, which is connected to the nodes directly. If a node has to take information from other node, then the data is taken from that node through the central node or server.
In this topology, each node is connected to more than one node, so that it provides alternative route, in case, if the host is either down or busy. It is also called a completely interconnected network. We can also call it as an extension to P2P network.
It is an extension and variation of bus topology. Its basic structure is like an inverted tree, where the root acts as a server. In tree topology, the node is interlinked in the form of tree. If one node fails, then the node following that node gets detached from the main tree topology.
Models of Computer Networking
There are mainly two models of computer networking, which are as follows
(i) Peer-to-Peer Network It is also known as P2P network. This computer network relies on computing power at the edges of a connection rather than in the network itself. P2P network is used for sharing content like audio,
video, data or anything in digital format. In P2P connection, a couple of computers is connected via a Universal Serial Bus (USB) to transfer files. In peer-to-peer networking, each or every computer may be worked as server or client.
(ii) Client-Server Network The model of interaction between two applications programs in which a program at one end (client) requests a service from a program at the other end (server). It is a network architecture which separates the client from the server. It is scalable architecture, where one computer works as server and others as client. Here, client acts as the active device and server behaves as passively.
Data Transfer on Network
Switching techniques are used for transmitting data across networks. Different types of switching techniques are employed to provide communication between two computers. These are
(i) Circuit Switching It is a methodology of implementing a telecommunication network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communication channel (circuit), first through the network and then the message is transmitted through the channels. The main advantage of circuit switching is guaranteed delivery. The circuit switching guarantees the full bandwidth of the channels and remains connected for the duration of the communication session. The defining example of a circuit switched network is the early analog telephone network. When a call is made from one telephone to another, switches within the telephone exchanges create a continuous wire circuit between the two telephones for as long as the call last.
(ii) Message Switching It is a network switching technique, in which data is routed entirely from the source node to the destination node. In this technique, no physical path is established between source and destination in advance. During message routing, every intermediate switch in the network stores the whole message. If the entire network’s resources are engaged or the network becomes blocked, the message switched network stores and delays the message until some resource become available for effective transmission of the message.
(iii) Packet Switching In packet-based networks, the message gets broken into small data packets. Thes packets are sent out from the computer and they t around the network seeking out the most efficient route to travel as circuits become available. This does not necessarily mean that, they seek out the shortest route. The main advantage of packet switching is that the packets from many different sources can share a line, allowing for very efficient use of the communication medium.
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