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Production of goods in large quantities by processing raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing. Manufacturing industries are known assecondary activities, as these industries manufacture primary material (like cotton fibre) into finished goods (like textiles)
Agriculture and Industries
Agriculture and industries depend upon each other. On one hand many industries like sugar, textile, etc depend on agricultural products like, cotton is the raw material in cotton textile mills. On the other hand, many industrial products like fertilisers, irrigation pumps, PVC pipes, tractors, machines and tools help in increasing agricultural productivity.
Importance of Manufacturing
Manufacturing sector is very important and is considered as the backbone of economic development because
- Manufacturing industries help in modernising agriculture which form the backbone of our economy.
- Manufacturing also reduces the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
- Industrial development helps in removal of unemployment and poverty as it creates jobs and more income. It also aims at bringing down regional differences by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
- Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings foreign exchange.
Contribution of Industry to National Economy
During the last 20 years, the share of the manufacturing sector has stayed at 17 % of GDP. This is much lower than some East Asian economies, where it is 25 to 35 %. The desired growth rate is expected to be 12% in the next decade which has been 7% in the last decade.
To develop the sector of manufacturing industries, government has set-up the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC)1. The objective is to bring appropriate policy to improveproductivity to achieve desired growth rate.
The location of an industry is influenced by Government policies, availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market facilities.
The features that influence the ideal location of an industry are
- Decision to locate factory at site.
- Cost of obtaining raw materials at site.
- Cost of Production at site.
- Cost of distribution of production.
Industry and market are closely linked with each other. A number of factors/ components which link these, are
- Money is needed to buy inputs for production. After selling the finished products in the market manufacturers/ industrialists also gain profit in the form of money.
- Inputs (like raw materials/component parts) are needed to produce goods in industries.
- Land, labour, capital, entrepreneur and infrastructure are the factory of production.
- A good network of transport is needed to supply raw materials from source region to factories and finished products to markets.
- Factories are setup to produce different products outputs.
- After manufacturing the finished goods a well developed market is needed to sell these goods.
Industrialisation and Urbanisation
Industrialisation and urbanisation2 depend upon each other. Industries are located around the cities where there are market of industrial goods and services like banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants and financial services are available.
During pre-independence era manufacturing units were located near the sea ports for overseas trade such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai. Many industries tends to come together to make use of advantages offered by urban centres known as Agglomeration Economies3.
Classification of Industries
Industries are classified on the basis of the following criteria
(i) On the Basis of Source of Raw Materials used
- Agro-based industries e.g., cotton, woollen, jute, silk textile, rubber, sugar, tea, coffee and edible oil.
- Mineral-based industries e.g., iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals.
(ii) On the Basis of Role Played by them
- Basic or key industries which supply their products as raw materials to other industries to manufacture other goods. For example, iron and steel, copper smelting4, aluminium smelting.
- Consumer industries which produce goods for direct consumer use. For example, sugar, paper, toothpaste, sewing machines, fans, etc.
(iii) On the Basis of Capital Investment
- Small scale industries industries with maximum investment upto 1 crore.
- Large scale industries industries with investment above 1 crore.
(iv) On the Basis of Ownership
- Public Sector which are owned and operated by government agencies, e.g. BHEL, SAIL, etc
- Private sector which are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals, e.g. TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd, Dabur Industries.
- Joint sector venture which are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals e.g. Oil India Ltd.
- Cooperative sector which are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. They pool in the resources (capital, raw materials, labour) and share the profits or losses proportionately such as the sugar industry in Maharashtra, the coir industry in Kerala.
(v) On the Basis of the Bulk and Weight of Raw Material and Finished Goods
- Heavy industries in which large machines and heavy or bulky raw materials are used to produce products, including capital goods like automobiles and construction machinery. For example – Iron and steel industry.
- Light Industries in which light raw materials are used to produce light utility goods, e.g. electrical industries, toy industry.
Types of Industries on the Basis of Material Used
On the basis of materials used the industries are classified into agro-based and mineral based industries.
Industries that are based on agricultural raw materials belong to this category, e.g. cotton, jute, silk, woollen textiles, sugar and edible oil, etc.
This industry contributes significantly to industrial production. It is the only industry in the country that is self-reliant and complete in the value chain, i.e. from raw material to the highest value added products, everything is done in India.
In ancient India, cotton textiles were produced with hand spinning and weaving in handlooms5. The first textile mill was setup in Mumbai in 1854, by which the handlooms were replaced by Powerlooms6. This industry is mainly located in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.
Khadi7 handlooms provide large scale employment to weavers and support cottage industries. Cotton goods are exported to Japan, USA, UK, Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka and several African countries. India has significantly increased its production of good quality long staple cotton.
The challenges related to this industry are
- This industry faces challenges in the form of outdated machinery, irregular power supply, competition from synthetic fibres and low output of labour.
- Exporting of yarn does not provides as much income as exporting of fabrics. Suppose that yarn is sold at ` 85 per kg, but if it is sold as trouser it fetches ` 800 per kg. Value is added at every stage from fibre to yarn to fabric and to garment.
India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods. It stands second in the jute export after Bangladesh. After partition in 1947, the jute mills remained in India, but three-fourth of the jute producing area went to Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan). Jute industry is located along the Hugli river in West Bengal.
The first jute mill was set up near Kolkata in 1859 at Rishra. The factors responsible for the location of jute mills in Hugli basin are
- Proximity of the jute producing areas reduces the cost of transportation.
- Inexpensive water transport and network of railways, roadways to facilitate movement of raw material to the mills.
- Abundant water supply from nearby rivers for processing raw jute.
- Cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining areas i.e. Bihar, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh.
- Kolkata is a large urban centre which provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods from Hugli.
The challenges faced by the industry include less demand and stiff competition in the international market from synthetic fibres and from other jute growing countries like Bangladesh, Philippines, Thailand, Brazil and Egypt.
India has to diversify its jute products to capture the main markets of jute which are USA, UK Canada, Ghana, Saudi Arabia and Australia.
India stands second in the world in sugar production and the first in the production of gur and khandsari. Sugar mills arelocated in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh sixty per cent sugar mills are in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
In recent years, there is a tendency for the mills to concentrate in the Southern and Western states, especially in Maharashtra. This is because the cane produced here has a higher sucrose content and cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season.
Major challenges to this industry include the seasonal nature of the industry, old and inefficient methods of production, transport delay in reaching cane to factories and the need to maximise the use of by-products like baggase. The raw material is bulky making its transportation difficult and the sucrose content keeps on decreasing with time.
Mineral Based Industries
Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral based industries.
Iron and Steel Industry
It is a basic industry as heavy, medium and light industries depend on it for machines and electrical goods. It is also considered heavy industry as raw material and finished goods are both heavy and bulky and involves heavy transportation cost. It is a public sector industry.
This industry manufactures steel which is needed in making of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic and scientific equipments and consumer goods.
India ranked second in the production of crude steel in the world with 111 million tonnes in 2019. China is the world’slargest producer and consumer of steel but its production was equal to India in 1950.
India is the largest producer of sponge iron. But its per capita consumption was only 74.3 kg per annum in 2019 against 229.3 kg of world average. India has many integrated steel plants.
They are large and handle everything in one complex. India also has many units of mini steel plants. They produce mild and alloy steel.
In India, most of the public sector undertakings trade their steel through Steel Authority of India. Factors which are responsible for location of iron and steel industry at one place are
- Close proximity to the areas where raw materials are found to reduce the transportation cost.
- Availability of cheap labour.
- Regular supply of water and power.
- Nearness to the markets where finished products can be sold.
- Close to sea ports for export facilities.
Chota Nagpur plateau region has maximum concentration of iron and steel industries due to having most of these factors.
Processes of Manufacture of Steel
In order to manufacture steel, iron ore, coking coal and limestone are needed in the ratio of approx. 4 : 2 : 1. Manganese is also required to harden the steel. The processes of manufacture of steel is shown below.
The challenges due to which India is not able to perform to its full potential in this industry are
- Limited availability and high cost of coking coal.
- Poor infrastructure
- Lower labour productivity
- Irregular supply of energy
It is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. Bauxite is the basic raw material of this industry which is a very bulky, dark reddish coloured rock. Aluminium is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals. It is used to
manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires. Aluminium has gained popularity as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in different industries. The factors responsible for the location of this Industry are regular supply of electricity and availability of raw material at minimum cost.
In India, aluminium smelting plants are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
In India, the chemical industry is fast growing and diversifying in nature. It comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units. Chemical industry has two sectors namely organic and inorganic sectors.
Organic sector produces organic chemicals. These chemicals include petrochemicals. Petrochemicals are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.
Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants. Inorganic sector produces inorganic chemicals. These chemicals include sulphuric acid used to manufacture fertilisers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes stuffs, nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash (used to make glass, soaps and detergents paper) and caustic soda. These chemical plants are located all over the country.
This industry produces a number of different fertilisers. These fertilisers include nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilisers and Diammonium Phosphate (DAP).
It also produces complex fertilisers which are produced by Nitrogen (N), Phosphate (P) and Potash (K). India imports potash from other countries. It is because the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form.
The Green Revolution provided a boost to this industry in the country. Around half of the fertiliser production is done by Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala. Other important producers are Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal, Goa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.
The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904. After independence the industry flourished in India. Cement is the basic requirement for construction activities like building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and other commercial establishments. The factors needed to set up cement industry in a place are:
- Availability of bulky and heavy raw materials such as limestone, silica and gypsum.
- Availability of coal and electric power to run the Industry and good transport network, such as rail transport.
- The cement industry has established its plants in Gujarat because the state provides access to the market in the Gulf countries.
- Indian cement industry has found its market in East Asia, Middle East, Africa and South Asia. The country also has large domestic demands for cement.
This industry provides quick transportation vehicles for goods and passengers. In India, there are centers for manufacture of trucks, buses, cars, motor cycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles.
The industry is located around Gurugram, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur, Delhi and Bengaluru.
Information Technology (IT) and Electronics Industry
It covers products from transistor sets to televisions, telephones, cellphones, telephone exchanges, radars, computers and other equipment required by the telecommunication and computer industry. Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other
important centres for electronic goods are Noida, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad, Pune, Delhi, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.
Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation
Although industries have contributed significantly to India’s economic growth and development but their waste products have caused environmental degradation. Industries are responsible for four types of pollution i.e. air, water, land and noise.
It is caused by the presence of high proportion of sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, air borne particulate matter8 like dust, sprays mist and smoke. Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick klins, refineries and smelting plants and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories.
It adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as a whole.
It is caused when organic and inorganic untreated industrial wastes and affluents are discharged into rivers. Textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries are the main industries causing water pollution.
It threatens plant, aquatic and human life. Fly ash, phospho-gypsum and iron and steel slags are major solid wastes in India.
This occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancer, birth defects and miscarriages.
Soil becomes polluted when harmful chemicals, industrial affluents, glass, packaging salts and garbage are dumped into the soil. Chemicals get absorb in the soil, making the soil useless.
National Thermal Power Corporation is a major power providing corporation in India. It has ISO certification 14001 for developing Environment Management Systems. Major task of NTPC is to set up power plants by conserving the natural environment and resources like air, water, oil gas, coal and other fuels. This is possible through:
- Optimum utilisation of equipments, adopting latest techniques and upgrading old equipment wherever possible.
- Minimising waste generation in thermal power plants by adopting ash utilisation techniques.
- Development of green belts by afforestation to maintain ecological balance.
- Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management.
- Installing facilities for ecological monitoring, review and online database management in all the power stations.
Noise from industrial and construction activities, machinery, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills, etc. contribute to noise pollution.
This type of pollution results in hearing impairment, increased heart rate, blood pressure and physiological effects such as stress and irritation.
Control of Environmental Degradation
Some suggestions to minimise the industrial pollution of freshwater are:
- Minimising water usage by reusing and recycling waste water in two or more successive stages.
- Rainwater harvesting to meet water requirements.
- Treating hot water and industrial wastes before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
This can be done in three phases
(i) Primary treatment by mechanical means (i.e. screening9, grinding, flocculation10 and sedimentation.)
(ii) Secondary treatment by biological processes. Such as planting trees, rain water harvesting.
(iii) Tertiary treatment by chemical, physical and biological processes like recycling of waste water, in sewage treatment plants.
Note: Sewage treatment plant under Yamuna Action Plan is located at Faridabad.
General measures to minimise environmental pollution are:
- Overdrawing of groundwater reserves by industries needs to be regulated legally.
- Generators and other machinery should be fitted with silencers and other noise absorbing materials to reduce their sound.
- Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators11, fabric filters12, scrubbers13 and inertial separators14.
- Use of oil or gas instead of coal to reduce smoke emission from factories.
- Redesigning of machinery to increase their efficiency in using energy.
- Promote sustainable development by integrating economic development goals with environmental construction.
Manufacturing Industries Quick Revision notes
Manufacturing Industries – Introduction, Location and Classification
Manufacturing is the production of goods in large quantities after processing raw materials
into more valuable products. Industries that manufacture finished products from primary
materials are called Manufacturing Industries.
Importance of Manufacturing
- Manufacturing Industries help in modernizing agriculture, which forms the backbone of
- Manufacturing Industries also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural
income because of the creation of new jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
- Industrial development helps in eradication of unemployment and poverty.
- Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings in much needed foreign exchange.
- A country with a high level of manufacturing activities becomes prosperous
Contribution of Industry to National Economy
- The share of manufacturing sector in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has stagnated at 17% over the last two decades.
- The total contribution of industry to the GDP is 27% out of which 10% comes from mining, quarrying, electricity and gas.
- The growth of the manufacturing sector had been 7% in the last decade. Since 2003, the growth rate has been 9 to 10% per annum. The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12%.
- The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set with the objectives of improving productivity through proper policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry.
Factors which Affect the Industrial Location
- Availability of raw materials.
- Availability of labour.
- Availability of capital.
- Availability of power.
- Availability of market.
Manufacturing Industry and Urbanisation
- A Manufacturing Industry promotes the urbanisation of its neighbourhood. Already urbanised areas also attract industries, since they provide ready facilities for transport, banking, labour, consultancy, etc. If an urban centre offers sufficient facilities and advantages, several industries come up there together to form an industrial agglomeration. These industries together form an agglomeration economy.
- Before Independence, most industries in India were located in port cities to enable easy overseas trade.
Classification of Industries
- On the basis of raw materials:
(i) Agro-Based Industries: Cotton, woollen, jute, silk textile, rubber, sugar, tea, coffee, etc.
(ii) Mineral-Based Industries: Iron and steel, cement, aluminium, petrochemicals, etc.
- On the basis of their main roles:
(i) Basic or Key Industries: These industries supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods,e.g., iron and steel, copper smelting, aluminium smelting.
(ii) Consumer Industries: These industries produce goods which are directly used by consumers, e.g., sugar, paper, electronics, soap, etc.
- On the basis of capital investment:
(i) Small Scale Industry: If the invested capital is up to
1 crore, then the industry is called a Small Scale Industry. (ii) Large Scale Industry: If the invested capital is more than1 crore, then the industry is called a Large Scale Industry.
- On the basis of ownership:
(i) Public Sector: These industries are owned and operated by government agencies, e.g., SAIL, BHEL, ONGC, etc.
(ii) Private Sector: These industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals, e.g., TISCO, Reliance, Mahindra, etc.
(iii) Joint Sector: These industries are jointly owned by the government and individuals or a group of individuals, e.g., Oil India Limited.
(iv) Cooperative Sector: These industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. The resources are pooled by each share holder and profits or losses are shared proportionately. AMUL which is Milk Cooperative is a good example. The Sugar Industry in Maharashtra is another example.
- On the basis of bulk and weight of raw materials and finished goods:
(i) Heavy Industries: Iron and Steel.
(ii) Light Industries: Electronics Industry
Industries based on agricultural raw materials are called agro based industries. For
example, cotton textiles, jute textiles, woollen textiles, silk textiles, synthetic textiles,
sugar industry, etc.
Types of Agro Based Industries
- Textile Industry:
- The textile industry contributes 14% to industrial production in India.
- 35 million people are directly employed in the textiles industry in India.
- In terms of employment generation, this industry is the second largest after agriculture.
- It earns approximately 24.6% of the foreign exchange.
- The contribution of textiles industry to GDP is 4%.
- This is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain.
(i) Cotton textiles: It occupies a unique position in the Indian economy, contributes 14% of industrial production.
- Provides employment to 35 million people directly.
- Earlier the cotton textile industries were located in Maharashtra and Gujarat.
- Today, they are spread over 80 towns and cities of India.
- Scarcity of good quality cotton, obsolete machinery, erratic power supply, low productivity of labour and stiff competition are some of the problems faced by the cotton textiles industry.
- The industry provides a source of livelihood to farmers, cotton ball pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.
- India has world class production in spinning but weaving supplies low quality of fabrics as it cannot use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country.
(ii) Jute textiles: There are about 80 Jute Mills in India and most of these are located in West Bengal, mainly in the Hugli basin.
- India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods in the world.
- India is the second largest exporter of jute goods after Bangladesh.
- Most of these mills are located in West Bengal; mainly along the banks of river Hooghly.
- The jute industry is in a narrow belt which is 98 km long and 3 km wide.
- Sugar Industry: India is the second largest producer of sugar in the world.
- It is the largest producer of Gur and Khandsari.
- They are spread over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.
- Sixty percent mills are in UP and Bihar.
- This industry is seasonal and hence, is more suited to the cooperative sector.
- In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra.
- The cane produced in this region has higher sucrose content. The cooler climate of this region ensures a longer crushing season.
Mineral Based Industries
Manufacturing industries that use minerals as raw material are called mineral-based
industries. The iron and steel industry is the basic industry on which all other industries
depend. The production and per capita consumption of steel is a measure of a country’s
Types of Mineral Based Industries
The main raw materials used in the Iron and Steel Industry are iron ore, coal and limestone.
The raw materials and finished products of iron and steel industries are quite bulky; these
industries must be located near the mining areas of the required minerals and must be
connected by a good transport network.
- Iron and Steel Industry:
- Iron and steel is the basic industry as all the other industries – heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery.
- It is considered as a heavy industry because all the raw materials, as well as finished goods, are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs.
- India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world yet, we are not able to perform to our fullpotential largely due to:
(i) High costs and limited availability of coking coal.
(ii) Lower productivity of labour.
(iii) Irregular supply of energy.
(iv) Poor infrastructure.
- China has become the world’s largest producer and consumer of steel, leaving India far behind.
Most steel manufacturing industries are located in the Chota Nagpur Plateau region because of the availability of inexpensive, high-grade raw material and abundant cheap labour.
Aluminium Smelting has gained popularity as a substitute for steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries. It exhibits the following properties:
(i) Light in weight.
(ii) Resistant to corrosion.
(iii) A good conductor of heat.
(v) Becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals.
2. Aluminium Smelting:
Aluminium Smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. It is used to
- Aluminium Smelting:
Aluminium Smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires. Bauxite is the raw material used in the smelters
- Chemical Industry:
The Chemical industry comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units.
Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sectors.
- Fertilizer Industry:
The fertilizer industries are centred around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea) and complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P) and potash (K).
Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala contribute towards half of the fertilizer production.
- Cement Industry:
Cement is essential for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishments.
This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica and gypsum.
- Automobile Industry:
This industry deals with the manufacturing of trucks, buses, cars, motorcycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles.
These industries are located around Delhi, Gurugram, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.
- Information Technology and Electronics Industry:
The electronics industry covers a wide range of products from transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, telephone exchange, radars, computers and many other equipment required by the telecommunication industry.
This industry has generated employment in India. Bengaluru is known as the electronic capital of India.
Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation
Types of Pollution caused by Industries:
- Air pollution: It is caused by the presence of a high proportion of undesirable gases, such
as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories,
brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels lead to air pollution. It
adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as a whole.
- Water pollution: It is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents
discharged into rivers. The industries which are mainly responsible for water pollution are
paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating
- Thermal pollution: Pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal
plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
- Noise pollution: It is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life. Itresults in irritation, anger, cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure.
Steps to Control Environmental Degradation.
- One of the most important steps for the control of environmental degradation is treating hot and polluted waste water from industries before releasing it into our rivers and lakes.
- Treated waste water can be recycled for reuse in industrial processes.
- Rainwater harvesting can be used to meet the requirements of water for industrial processes.
- Legal provisions must be made to regulate the use of groundwater for industrial use. Smoke stacks, filters, scrubbers and electrostatic and inertial separators remove a large number of harmful particles from industrial smoke. The emission of smoke itself from industries can be reduced by using more efficient fuels like oil and natural gas in place of coal.
- Industrial and generator silencers, and sound-absorbing material are available to reduce the noise level in industries. Industrial workers can use earphones and earplugs for individual protection of health and hearing .
- National Thermal Power Corporation or NTPC is a major electricity generation and distribution company in India.
- NTPC has demonstrated how conservation of environment and natural resources can happen simultaneously with industrial growth by:
- Adopting latest technical know how.
- Minimising waste.
- Providing green cover.
- Reducing environmental pollution.
- Continuous monitoring.
Manufacturing Industries Important terms
- Manufacturing: Production of goods in large quantities after converting raw materials, components or parts into finished goods.
- NMCC: The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council.
- Agglomeration Economies: The industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by urban centres.
- Entrepreneur: An innovator of new ideas who sets up a business taking on financial risks in the hope of profit.
- Large Scale Industries: Industries which employ a large number of labour in each unit. Example- Cotton Textile Industry.
- Public Sector Industries: Industries which are owned and operated by government agencies. Example- BHEL.
- Agro-Based Industries: Industries which obtain raw materials from agricultural products. Example- Sugar Industry.
- Mineral-Based Industries: Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials. Example- Iron and Steel Industry.
- Basic Industries: Industries, on which depend, many other industries for their manufacturing processes. Example- Iron and Steel Industry.
- Textile Industries: Textile is a fabric that is knitted or woven and made from yarn. It is the industry that is responsible for taking raw material like cotton or wool and spinning it into yarn that is later used to create the fabric.
- Ginning: The process of separating the seeds from the cotton fibers is known as ginning.
- Spinning: It is the twisting together of drawn-out strands of fibers to form a yarn, and is a major part of the Textile Industry.
- Dyeing: It is the process of adding colour to textile products like fibers, yarns and fabrics.
- Khandsari: It is a type of unrefined raw white sugar made from thickened sugarcane syrup. It is neither bleached nor contains harmful chemicals and additives.
- Organic Chemicals: These include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibre, plastics, drugs and pharmaceuticals.
- Inorganic Chemicals: These include sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalis, soda ash and caustic soda.
- Air Pollution: It is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
- Water Pollution: It is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into rivers.
- Thermal Pollution: The pollution caused by the discharge of hot water from factories and thermal plants into rivers and ponds before cooling.
- Noise Pollution: It is caused by industrial and construction activities, machinery, generators, electric drills and loudspeakers.
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