Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes|Class 10 Science Chapter 13 Notes PDF Download

Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes

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Contents

Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes

Magnet in Class 10 Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current Notes

It is a substance which has the property to attract certain substances like iron, cobalt, nickel, steel, etc. These are known as magnetic substances

Poles of magnet:

One end of the magnet points towards the north pole of the earth and it is called North pole, the other end which points towards the south pole of the earth is called the South pole of the magnet. Induced magnet

(Artificial magnet):

It is a temporary magnet made up of iron or steel or a magnetic material when it is near to or in contact with the magnet. Magnetic substances: Those substances which are attracted by magnets, e.g. Fe, Co, Ni, Alnico (alloy of Al,Co, Ni, Fe).

Non-magnetic substances:

Those substances which are not attracted by magnet, e.g. Copper, Zinc, Aluminium, Brass, Wood, Glass, Rubber, Plastic, etc.
Uses of Magnet: Magnets are used in Fridge doors so that they close automatically

  • Electric motor, fan, electric generators, etc.
  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan uses magnetic field to create a picture of internal organs.
  • Hard discs, audio-video tapes etc. use magnetic substances.

Characteristics of Magnets:

  • Like poles repel and unlike poles attract each other.
  • Magnet attracts magnetic substances.
  • Freely suspended magnet aligns itself to the north-south direction as the geographic north-south direction.
  • Magnetic poles cannot be separated. Every magnet has two poles, i.e. monopoles does not exist

Magnetic compass in Class 10 Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current Notes

It has a freely suspended magnet enclosed in a small glass case. It rests in north-south direction. It is used to find Earth’s north and south direction. It is used in navigation of ships, aeroplanes.
Magnetic needle is a permanent magnet. Magnets can be made by stroking or electric method.

Oersted Experiment:

He showed that a current carrying conductor behaves like a magnet

Magnetic field:

The region around a magnet where its magnetic effect can be observed is called magnetic field. The strength of magnetic field depends on the closeness of magnetic field lines of force. Its unit is Weber per m2 or Tesla. It is a vector quantity, i.e. it has magnitude as well as direction. The direction of magnetic field is the direction in which a north pole of a compass needle moves when it is kept in the magnetic field.

Magnetic lines of Force (Magnetic field lines):

It is the closed path traced by the unit north pole, in a magnetic field. These can be drawn on the paper using a bar magnet and a compass needle.

Properties of magnetic field lines:

Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes Pdf

These lines start from N-pole and goes to to S-pole outside the magnet.

  • These lines never intersect with each other.
  • These lines tend to shorten themselves due to magnetic force.
  • These lines repel each other sideways.
  • Higher the density of the magnetic field lines of force, greater is the magnetic field strength.
  • Magnetic field lines are closed curves

Magnetic field due to a current carrying conductor:

Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes
  • An electric current through a conductor produces a magnetic field. It causes deflection in the magnetic compass needle when placed near it.
  • If the current flows from north to south, the north pole of the compass needle would move towards the east direction.
  • If the direction of current is reversed, the needle will move in the opposite direction.

Magnetic field due to current through a straight conductor:

Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes
  • A pattern of concentric circles indicates the field lines of the magnetic field around a straight conducting wire as shown in the Figure above.
  • These circles become larger and larger as we move away from it.
  • The magnetic field strength at any point is inversely proportional to the distance of that point from the current carrying wire.

Fleming’s Right hand thumb rule:

Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes

It states that if we hold a current carrying conductor in the right hand in such a way that the thumb is stretched along the direction of the current, then fingers will wrap around the conductor in the direction of the field lines of the magnetic field.

More Science Notes


Magnetic Field due to Current Carrying Conductors in Magnetic Field

Magnetic field due to current in circular loop and circular coil

  • The magnitude of magnetic field is directly proportional to the current passing through the circular loop or wire.
  • It is inversely proportional to the radius of circular loop or wire.

Maxwell Cork Screw Rule of Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes

If we consider ourselves driving a corkscrew in the direction of the current, then the direction of the advancement of corkscrew is the direction of magnetic field. This is Right Hand Thumb Rule, it is also called Maxwell’s cork screw rule.

  • At every point of current carrying circular loop, the concentric circles of magnetic field become larger and larger as we move away from the wire.
  • Near the center of loop, magnetic field appears as straight lines
Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes
  • In a circular coil, if there are ‘n’ turns, the field produced will be ‘n’ times as large as produced by the singleturn because the current in each circular turn has the same direction and the field due to each turn that will just add up.

If the direction of current in a loop appears to be flowing in the anticlockwise direction then that end of the loop will be or behave as north pole or and if the direction of the current in the loop appears to be flowing in the clockwise direction then it will be the south pole or behaves like south pole

Solenoid:

The solenoid is a long coil containing large number of turns of an insulated copper wire wrapped around a soft iron or steel core in the shape of a cylinder.

  • The pattern of magnetic field lines due to a solenoid are shown in the figure depicted below:
  • These magnetic field lines are similar to the magnetic field lines produced by a bar magnet.
  • One end of the solenoid behaves like north pole and other behaves as the south pole.
  • The field lines inside the solenoid are in the form of parallel straight lines, which shows that magnetic field is same at all the points in solenoid and the magnetic field is uniform inside.
  • When soft iron is placed inside the solenoid, it can also be magnetised.

Elecro-magnet In Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes

The magnet formed with the help of electric current is called Electro-magnet. It works on magnetic effect of current.

  • Larger the number of turns in the solenoid, greater will be the magnetism produced in the soft iron core
  • The magnetic field produced is directly proportional to the current passed through the solenoid.
  • The use of soft iron rod as core of solenoid produces strong magnetism.

Force on a current carrying conductor in magnetic field:

  • When a current carrying conducter is placed in a magnetic field it experiences a force.
  • When the direction of current is reversed, the direction of force is also reversed.
  • If the direction of magnetic field is reversed by interchanging the poles of magnet, the direction of force is also reversed.
  • The force is maximum when the direction of current is at 90° to the direction of magnetic field. The direction of force is given by Fleming’s left hand rule

Fleming’s left hand rule Of Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes

According to this rule, stretch the thumb, forefinger and middle finger perpendicular to each other. If the force finger points in the direction of magnetic field, middle finger in the direction of current, then the thumb will point in the direction of force or motion of the conductor.

  • Electric motors, electric generators, loudspeakers, microphones are based on the use of conductor carrying current and magnetic field produced by them

Electric Motor, Electromagnetic Induction

Electric Motor:

It is a rotating device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. It is based on magnetic effect of current.

  • It is used in electric fans, refrigerators, mixer and grinder, juicer, washing machine, computers, submersible pump, flour mill, et

Commercial Motors in Class 10 Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current Notes

  • An electromagnet is used instead of a permanent magnet in commercial motors.
  • Large number of turns of conducting wires are used in current carrying coils.
  • An electric motor consists of a soft iron core on which coil is wounded which is called the armature. It increases the power of motor.

Electromagnetic induction in Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes

It is the phenomena of production of induced current and potential difference in a conductor by changing the magnetic flux associated with the conductor.

Galvanometer:

It is an instrument used to detect the presence of current in a circuit. A pointer in it deflects to the left or right depending on the direction of the current.

Fleming’s Right hand rule for the direction of Induced current:

Hold the thumb, the forefinger and central finger of your right hand perpendicular to each other in such a way that forefinger represents the direction of magnetic field, the thumb points in the direction of motion of conductor, then the central finger will give the direction of induced current in the conductor.

Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction:

The strength of induced current and potential difference are directly proportional to the magnetic flux

Faraday and Henry made the following observations on the basis of experiments about electromagnetic induction.

  • A current and potential difference are produced in the coil when there is relative motion between the coil and magnet.
  • A current and potential difference is also induced in the fixed coil when either the magnet or coil is rotated. We can keep the magnet at rest and move the coil or vice versa.
  • No current flows if both coil and magnet are stationary. No potential difference and current are induced if magnet and solenoid are moving at same speed, or if there is no relative motion between them.
  • When the direction of movement of coil is reversed, the direction of current induced is also reversed.
  • The magnitude of induced current and potential difference can be increased by:
  • (a) wounding coils on soft iron core
  • (b) increasing number of turns on the coil
  • (c) increasing the speed of rotation of magnet or coil
  • (d) increasing the strength of magnet
  • The direction of induced e.m.f. (electromotive force) and induced current is reversed when the magnet is moved out of the solenoid.

E.M.F. (electromotive force) in Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes:

It is equal to the maximum potential difference when no current is drawn from the cell.

Variation in which the moving magnet is replaced by current carrying coil and the current in the coil is varied:

  • As soon as coil I reaches either a steady value or zero, the galvanometer in coil shows no deflection.
  • When current in coil I is changing, potential difference in coil II is induced.
  • Take the two coils, coil I as primary coil and coil II as secondary coil.
  • As the current in the first coil changes, magnetic field associated with the first coil also changes.
  • The change in magnetic field in coil I is the cause of induced potential difference in coil II.
  • The induced current is maximum when direction of motion of coil is at right angle to the magnetic field.

Main Points Of Magnetic Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes

  • An electric current carrying wire behaves like a magnet.
  • A magnetic field is produced near a current carrying conductor. This is called magnetic effect of current.
  • When a magnetic compass is placed near the conductor through which current is passed there is a deflection in the compass.
  • Electric motors, fans, generators are based on magnetic effect of current.
  • A magnet attracts magnetic materials like iron, cobalt, nickel and some alloys like steel.
  • Each magnet has two poles. One end of the magnet points towards the north end of the Earth, which itself is a huge magnet. It is called north pole, the other end of the magnet points towards the south end of the Earth & is called the south pole of the Earth.
  • Law of magnetic poles: Like poles repel, unlike poles attract each other.
  • The region around a magnet in which its effect can be observed is called magnetic field. It is a vector quantity, it has magnitude as well as direction.
  • Magnetic field lines can be drawn around a magnet with the help of compass needle.
  • The relative strength of magnetic field is shown by the degree of closeness of magnetic field lines.
  • A compass needle is a small magnet. Its one end which point towards the north direction is called north pole, and the other end pointing towards the south direction is called the south pole.
  • Magnetic field lines are used to represent magnetic field.
  • A magnetic field is associated with a current carrying conductor.
  • The direction of magnetic field lines about the wire consist of concentric circles whose direction is given by Anpere’s right hand thumb rule.
  • The pattern of magnetic field around a conductor depends on the shape of the conductor.
  • A current carrying solenoid behaves like a bar magnet
  • The magnetic field of a solenoid carrying current is similar to that of a bar magnet.
  • An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by current.
  • If the direction of magnetic field and the current in the conductor are perpendicular to each other, the force acting on the conductor will be perpendicular to both, current as well as magnetic field. It is Fleming’s left hand rule.
  • An electric motor works on Fleming’s left hand rule. It converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
  • The production of emf (voltage) in a conductor when there is a change in magnetic flux linked with the conductor is called electromagnetic induction. The emf so produced is called induced emf.
  • The strength of the induced emf (electromotive force) is directly proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux. It is Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.
  • The magnitude of induced emf increases when the magnet is (i) moved quickly, (ii) number of turns in the solenoid increases, (iii) the strength of magnet is increased, (iv) change the angle between coil and magnetic field.
  • The direction of the induced current in a conductor is given by Fleming’s right hand rule.

Common Errors of Class 10 Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current Notes

Class 10 Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current Notes

Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current Class 10 Notes Pdf

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