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Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism In India Notes | Class 10 history chapter 2 notes pdf

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism In Indian Summary and Class 10 history chapter 2 notes
Class 10 history chapter 2 notes
 

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism In India Notes

The growth of modern nationalism is intimately connected to anti-colonial movement. The congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge groups together within one movement. However, the unity did not emerge without conflict.

First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation of Nationalism In India Class 10 Notes Pdf

  • National Movement was spreading in New areas in 1919 and incorporating new social groups and developing new modes of struggle. 
  • Mahatma Gandhi came to India and The Idea of Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth. 
  • He advocated that physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. 
  • In 1916, He travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system. 

The Differing Strands Within The Non Cooperation Movement:

  • Non-cooperation movement was a mass movement which was launched by Gandhi in 1920. It was a peaceful and a non-violent protest against the British government in India. Proposals of non-cooperation movement: 
  • Surrender the titles which were awarded by the British government.
  • Boycott civil services, army, police, courts, legislative councils and schools. 
  • Boycott foreign goods.
  • Launch full civil disobedience campaign, if the government persisted with repressive measures 
  • The main aim of the Non-Cooperation movement was the demand of ‘Swaraj’ or the self Govt.

The Differing Strands Within The Non Cooperation Movement:

The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began in January 1921. Various social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration. All of them responded to the call of Swaraj, but the term meant different things to different people.

The Movement in the Towns-

  • It started with middle class participation in cities.
  • Students, teachers, lawyers gave up studies, jobs, legal practices and joined movements.
  • Council elections were boycotted.
  • Foreign goods were boycotted.
  • Liquor shops were picketed

Peasant Movement in Awadh:

  • The peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra in Awadh against landlords and talukdars In 
  • 1920, the Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and a few others

Movement of Tribals in Andhra Pradesh:

  • Alluri Sitaram Raju led the guerrilla warfare in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh.
  • The rebels attacked police stations.
  • Raju was captured and executed in 1924

The Idea of Satyagraha Of Nationalism In India Class 10 Notes Pdf

  • The idea of satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
  • It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. 
  • Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through nonviolence. 
  • Some early satyagraha movements organized by Gandhi: Peasants’ movement in Champaran 1916 Peasants’ movement in Kheda in 1917 
  • Mill workers’ movement in Ahmedabad in 1918.  

The Rowlatt act:

  • When the Rawlatt act 1919, was passed hurriedly through the Imperial Legislative Council inspire of unanimous opposition of the Indian members, Gandhiji’s patience comes to an end. 
  • Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws, which would start with a hartal on 6th April. 
  • 6th April 1919 was observed as Satyagraha Day when people all over the country observed fast and hartal. 
  • 1919, the country witnessed a remarkable political awakening in India. 
  • Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi. 
  • On 10th April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession, provoking widespread attacks on banks.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre:(जलियांवाला बाग हत्याकांड)

  • A large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jalliawalla Bagh. 
  • People came to protest against government’s repressive measure while some came to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. 
  • General Dyer entered the area. Blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. 
  • The government responded with brutal repression seeking to humiliate and terrorise people. 
  • Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets and do Salaam (salute) to all Sahibs. 

Khilafat movement:

  • Khilafat Movement was led by two brothers Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali. 
  • Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919 to defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers. 
  • Gandhiji convinced the Congress to join hands with the Khilafat Movement and start a Non-Cooperation Campaign for Swaraj. 
  • At the Congress session at Nagpur in December 1920, the Non-Cooperation programme was adopted.

Differing strands within the movement: 

  • Rebellion in the countryside: – From the cities, the noncooperation movement spread to the countryside. After the war, the struggles of peasants and tribal were developing in different parts of India. 
  • One movement here war against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasant exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses. 
  • Peasants had to do begar. The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, an abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords. 
  • Oudh Kisan Sabha was setup headed by. Jawaharlal Nehru and other, within a month, over 300 branches had been set up by the villagers. 
  • Tribal peasants interpreted the message of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of Swaraj in yet another way.
  • The colonial government had closed large forest areas preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuel wood and fruits. 
  • Alluri Sitaram Raju Claimed that he had a variety of special powers. He asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force.

Towards Civil Disobedience:

  • Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922. 
  • The movement was turning violent in many places and satyagarhis needed properly trained for mass struggle. 
  • CR Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics. 
  • Salt was a powerful symbol that could unite the nation. 
  • Salt march accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers. 
  • Finally, Mahatma Gandhi once again decided to call off the movement and entered into a pact with Irwin on 5 March 1931. 
  • Participants saw the movement in different angle such as Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh. 
  • To organise business interest, formed the Indian Industrial and commercial congress in 1920 and Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI). 
  • Gandhi called to Untouchable that is Harijan, Children of God.

The Sense of Collective Belonging in Nationalism In India Class 10 Notes Pdf:

  • Nationalist Movement Spreads when people belonging to different regions and communities begin to develop a sense of collective belongingness. The identity of a nation is most often symbolized in a figure or image. 
  • This image of Bharat Mata was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870 when he wrote ‘Vande Mataram ‘ for our motherland. Indian folk songs and folk sung by bards played an important role in making the idea of nationalism. In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore and in Madras, Natesa, Sastri collection of folk tales and songs, which led the movement for folk revival. 
  • During the Swadeshi Movement, a tri-color ( red, green and yellow ) flag was designed in Bengal. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces and a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims. 
  • Means of creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history. The nationalist writers urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism In India Notes

Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of Satyagraha: 

Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in 1915 from South Africa. Gandhiji’s novel method of mass agitation is know as ‘Satyagraha’. Satyagraha emphasized truth. Gandhiji believed that if the cause is true, if the struggle is against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. 
 
A satyagrahi can win the battle through nonviolence. People, including oppressors, had to be persuaded to see the truth. Truth was bound to ultimately triumph. In India the first was at Champaran in 1916 to inspire plantation workers to struggle against oppressive plantation system. In 1917 Satyagraha at Kheda to support peasants

In 1918 Satyagraha at Ahmadabad: Among the cotton mill workers.

‘Hind Swaraj’: The famous book written by Mahatma Gandhi, which emphasized non-cooperation to British rule in India.

The Effect Of First World War:

  • The War led to a huge increase in defense expenditure. 
  • This was financed by war loans and by increasing taxes. Customs duties were raised and income tax was introduced to raise extra revenue. Prices of items increased during the war years. 
  • The prices doubled between 1913 and 1918. The common people were the worst sufferers because of price rise. Forced recruitment of rural people in the army was another cause of widespread anger among people.
  • Crop failure in many parts of India resulted in acute shortage of food. Influenza epidemic further aggravated the problem. According to 1921 census, about 12 to 13 million people died because of famines and epidemic.

The Rowlatt Act of 1919 in Nationalism In India Class 10 Notes Pdf

It gave the British government enormous power to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. 

Jallianwala Bagh incident:

 On 13th April 1919, a crowd of villagers who had come to attend a Baisakhi fair, gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh. Being from outside the city, many were not aware of the martial law that had been imposed as a repressive measure. General Dyer with his British troops entered the park and closed the only exit point without giving any warning to the assembled people and ordered the troops to fire at the crowds, killing hundreds. This brutal act of General Dyer provoked unparalleled indignation. As the news of Jallianwala Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets in many North Indian towns. There were hartals, clashes and attacks on government buildings. 

Non-cooperation programme was adopted at Nagpur in Dec. 1920.

Effects of the Non-cooperation Movement on the economy of India:

Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops were picketed and foreign cloth was burnt. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921-1922. Its value dropped from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore. Many merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. People began discarding imported clothes and wearing Indian ones. The production of Indian textile mills and hand looms went up. Use of khadi was popularized. 

Non-cooperation Movement in the countryside:

  • In Awadh, the peasants’ movement led by Baba Ramchandra was against talukdars and landlords who demanded extremely high rents and a variety of other ceases from the peasants. Peasants were forced to work in landlords’ farms without any payment (beggar). Peasants had no security of tenure, thus being regularly evicted so that they could acquire no right over the leased land. The demands of the peasants were— reduction of revenue, abolition of beggar and social boycott of oppressive landlords. 
  • In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s against the closure of forest areas by the colonial government, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuel wood and fruits. They felt that their traditional rights were being denied.
  • For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed. It meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave tea gardens without permission. In fact the permission was hardly granted. When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities and left for their homes. 

Slowing down of Non-cooperation Movement in cities:

  •  Khadi cloth was more expensive than mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. As a result they could not boycott mill cloth for too long. 
  • Alternative Indian institutions were not there which could be used in place of the British ones. These were slow to come up. 
  • So students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back work in government courts.

Khilafat movement: 

Khilafat movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi and the Ali Brothers, Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali in response to the harsh treatment given to the Caliph of Ottoman empire and the dismemberment of the Ottoman empire by the British. 

Chauri Chaura incident of Nationalism In India Class 10 Notes

In February 1922, Gandhiji decided to launch a no tax movement. The police opened fire at the people who were taking part in a demonstration, without any provocation. The people turned violent in their anger and attacked the police station and set fire to it. The incident took place at Chauri Chaura in Uttar Pradesh.

When the news reached Gandhiji, he decided to call off the Non-cooperation movement as he felt that it was turning violent and that the satyagrahis were not properly trained for mass struggle.

Swaraj Party was founded by C.R. Das and Moti Lai Nehru for return to council Politics. Simon Commission 1928 and boycott. Lahore Congress session and demand for Puma Swaraj in 1929. Dandi march and the beginning of civil Disobedience movement.

A Brief Note About The Swaraj Plantations:

  • For the Plantation workers Swaraj meant the freedom to roam freely. 
  • They thought Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in his own village. 
  • To support Non Cooperation Movement, they all left their Plantations without the permission of the employer. 
  • Unfortunately they all were caught mid-way and brutally beaten.

Features of Civil Disobedience Movement of Nationalism In India Class 10 Notes

  • People were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British but also to break colonial laws. 
  • Foreign cloth was boycotted and people were asked to picket liquor shops.
  • Peasants were asked not to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes.
  • Students, lawyers and village officials were asked not to attend English medium schools, colleges, courts and offices.

How Did People From Various Groups Saw The Civil Disobidience Movement?

Rich peasants-

  • Rich peasant communities expected the revenue tax to be reduced, when the British refused to do so, they did join the movement.
  • They did not rejoin the movement as the movement was called without revising the revenue rates

 Poor Peasants-

  • The poor peasants wanted rents of lands to be remitted.
  • The Congress was unwilling to support the “no rent“ campaigns due to the fear of upsetting the rich peasants and landlords.

Business Classes-

  • After the war, their huge profits were reduced, wanted protection against import of foreign goods.
  • The spread of militant activities, worries Of prolonged business disruptions, growing influences of socialism amongst the young Congress forced them not to join the movement.

Women-

  • Women also participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organization

‘Salt March’:

 On 31st January, 1930 Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands, one of which was the demand to abolish Salt Tax. Salt was one of the most essential food items consumed by the rich and poor alike and a tax on it was considered an oppression on the people by the British Government. Mahatma Gandhi’s letter was an ultimatum and if his demands were not fulfilled by March 11, he had threatened to launch a civil disobedience campaign. 
 
So, Mahatma Gandhi started his famous Salt March accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers. The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi. The volunteers walked for 24 days, about 10 miles a day. Thousands came to hear Mahatma Gandhi wherever he stopped, and he told them what he meant by Swaraj and urged them to peace-fully defy the British. On 6th April, he reached Dandi, and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. 

Who participated in the movement? 

Civil Disobedience Movement came into force in various parts of the country. Gandhiji led the salt march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi with his followers starting the Civil Disobedience Movement. In the countryside, the rich Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh were active in the movement.
 
As rich communities were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices, they became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Merchants and industrialists supported the movement by giving financial assistance and also by refusing to buy and sell the imported goods. The industrial working class of Nagpur region also participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Railway workers, dock workers, mineral of Chhota Nagpur, etc. participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.

Limits of the movement:

less participation by untouchables—Ambedker for separate electorate and Poona pact of 1932, Luke warm response by some Muslim Political Organization. 

Provisions of Poona pact of 1932: 

Signed between Dr. Ambedkar and Gandhiji. It gave depressed classes reserved seats in central provincial councils but they were to be voted by the general electorate.

The sense of collective belonging: 

Though nationalism spread through the experience of united struggle but a variety of cultural processes captured the imagination of Indians and promoted a sense of collective belonging.
  • Use of figures or images: The identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. Devotion to the mother figure came to be seen as an evidence of one’s nationalism 
  • Indian folklore: Nationalists started recording and using folklore’s and tales, which they believed, gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces. So preservation of these became a way to discover one’s national identity and restore a sense of price in one’s past. 
  • Use of icons and symbols in the form of flags: Carrying the tricolor flag and holding it aloft during marches became a symbol of defiance and promoted a sense of collective belonging. 
  •  Reinterpretation of history: Indians began looking into the past to rediscover the glorious developments in ancient times in the field of art, science, mathematics, religion and culture, etc.

Last Lines

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